Thought Leadership

Public-to-Private Transactions in the U.K.

July 29, 2022 Reports and White Papers

The Current Public-to-Private Market

The year 2021 proved to be a busy one for the acquisition of U.K. public companies, particularly by U.S.-based bidders and private equity sponsors (Sponsors) (for more information please see our article U.S. Bidders Lead the Way on U.K. Public Takeovers). Furthermore, the number of U.K. public companies taken private as a result of these acquisitions has increased significantly over this time, from only 5 in 2020 to 19 in 2021.

Whilst this momentum has curtailed slightly of late, principally as a result of the effects of ongoing global economic, political and market volatility, the recent fall in public company equity values presents a unique prospect for Sponsors to seize opportunities to invest in the U.K. British companies have appeared relatively cheap of late when compared with their U.S. rivals and as measured on a price-to-earnings ratio. This is even more the case considering the recent fall in public company equity values globally, in addition to the pound falling to its lowest level since the pandemic crash. The gap between these valuations has made “take private” deals more attractive to U.S. funds. When combined with the fact that PE funds are also sitting on large amounts of cash that underlying investors are keen to be deployed now, public to private transactions are set to continue for the moment.

There are key considerations Sponsors should take into account when considering a public-to-private transaction involving a U.K.-listed target against the backdrop of the current market and the ongoing crisis and economic fallout from the war in Ukraine, which we cover below.

Key Considerations for Sponsors

Pricing a target company

As a result of falling share prices and the decline in global currencies, determining the price of a target U.K. public company is not a straightforward or simple task. While transport, tourism and hospitality are still recovering, tech companies have become the latest to see large losses in their share prices, making it difficult to value prospects at the current time. Many new entrants as well as long-term tech companies have lost significant value across Q1 and Q2 in 2022, after what was for many a record year in 2021. As a result, there are multi-faceted pricing considerations that Sponsors will need to consider, including:

  • the liquidity of the target company;
  • composition of the target board;
  • the shareholders of the target company; and
  • the messaging and justification of the valuation and offer price.

These are just some of the concerns that will need to be taken into account when considering the pricing of the target company, in light of the current market conditions and volatility. Pricing is an important step that Sponsors need to consider carefully, in order to make sure that the price of the target company best takes into account and deals with the various points needed to successfully navigate a transaction.

Scheme of Arrangements

The most direct and most common way for a potential bidder to structure a public-to-private transaction in the U.K. is by means of a scheme of arrangement. A scheme of arrangement enables the bidder to acquire 100% ownership of the target U.K. public company. Whilst it is often quicker, the scheme of arrangement route requires both shareholder approval at a general meeting of the company and court approval. As such, there is a structured procedure and court application process involved that will require local U.K. advisers for both the bidder and target company. Before proceeding with a scheme of arrangement, Sponsors will need to better understand the deal structure and procedural steps in relation to the suitability of this approach. For more information on scheme of arrangements generally, please see our article on Structuring Public Takeovers in the U.K..

Foreign Investments Review and Scrutiny

In recent years, there has been a focus on the review and scrutiny of foreign investment into the U.K., which has only intensified as a result of the underlying global issues that have made the control of assets in relation to strategically important industries such as health and technology of paramount importance. This came to light in particular during the COVID-19 pandemic in relation to medical supplies and equipment. Once again, this remains a consideration in relation to the energy crisis in Europe as a result of the sanctions on Russia, as governments globally look to protect industries and companies that are economically or nationally strategic such as those in the health care or energy and power sectors. Sponsors should consider the effect (if any) that U.K. foreign investments review and scrutiny may have on the acquisition of a potential target company.

Due Diligence

As a result of applicable listing rules and ongoing disclosure requirements placed on a U.K.-listed company, a lot of information is already in the public domain and only confirmatory/high-level due diligence is usually necessary. Furthermore, any competing bidders have the right to equal access to information supplied to another bidder under the Code, which can restrain co-operation with the target company.

As the war in Ukraine continues, Sponsors in the U.S. looking to purchase a U.K.-listed company need to consider the sanctions in place by the U.K. and the U.S. as they relate to any assets that might be owned by sanctioned companies or individuals related to Russia ownership. With each country having their own list of sanctioned companies and individuals, Sponsors should note whether something permitted under the U.K. sanctions is also permitted under U.S. sanctions and vice versa. Due diligence becomes a key process for Sponsors to understand ownership of a company, and therefore their obligations under sanctions in both countries and how the acquisition of the target company might affect those obligations.

Acquisition Financing

With public company share values being felt across all markets, particularly the FTSE 100 and S&P 500, as well as the general volatility globally, lenders may be unlikely or unwilling to provide debt financing to Sponsors. Due to increased market volatility, it will become difficult for lenders to predict a Sponsor’s ability to repay the debt in the future, largely because of the uncertainty of the financial performance of any target businesses. Furthermore, the increase in central bank interest rates that we are currently witnessing will also be a key consideration as this will clearly affect deal metrics. It is also worth noting that, under the City Code on Takeovers and Mergers (the Code), the financing for an acquisition is to be made on a “certain funds” basis, to which there are limited exceptions. As such, the volatility combined with requirements under the Code may mean there is a scarcity of available financing for any transaction. Therefore, Sponsors need to carefully consider financing options as a part of their plans for any acquisition.

Acquiring an Early Stake

It is common for Sponsors bidding for public targets to first look to acquire a small stake in the target. This is often the case in competitive bids. However, Sponsors need to be aware that any market purchases they make prior to any later acquisition offer will still be relevant for setting the price that must be offered under a subsequent bid for the same target company under the Code. What this means in practical terms is, if a bidder or its ‘concert party’ (as defined under the Code) acquires an interest in shares of a target during a three-month period;

  • prior to the offer period; or
  • during any period between the commencement of the offer period and the announcement by the bidder of an intention to make an offer,

then the offer is required to not be on less favourable terms (i.e., the price per share offered must be no less than the highest amount paid for any shares previously acquired by the Sponsor during this period). In a market with increasing volatility and where prices could continue to fall, an earlier stake could bind a company to a minimum price that hinders a Sponsor’s ability to secure the best terms for an acquisition. These types of Code considerations are a key part of transactions.

Break Fees

A break fee that is payable by a target to a bidder in the event of a takeover offer not proceeding is prohibited under the Code. The only exceptions to this prohibition are when the target has announced that it is seeking one or more potential bidders by means of a formal sale process or where a hostile firm offer has been announced, in which case the target company can agree to pay a break fee to a recommended "white knight" (i.e., a possible counter-bidder) if the target company is in serious financial difficulties.

In each case, the break fee must be entered into only at the time that a firm offer for the target is announced, it must be limited to no more than 1% of the aggregate offer value of the offer (on a fully diluted basis), and must be payable only if another offer becomes wholly unconditional.

However, there is no prohibition under the Code on a bidder agreeing to pay a reverse break fee (i.e., a fee payable by a proposed bidder to a target if the offer does not proceed for specified reasons).

Timeline for Acquisition

With continuing issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the ripple effects of Russian sanctions, Sponsors need to be prepared that timelines for acquisitions may be extended in response to navigating these issues. It becomes imperative at an early stage for Sponsors to consult legal counsel for any proposed transaction to ensure any legal or regulatory filings/requirements can be dealt with as expediently as possible. Particular timing considerations will apply where regulatory or merger control conditions need to be satisfied before completion takes place and early consultation with legal counsel is advisable in these instances.

How Armstrong Teasdale Can Help

Armstrong Teasdale is experienced in advising on public-to-private transactions, and our experienced U.K. Capital Markets team is able to guide any interested Sponsors through the process of acquiring a publicly listed U.K. company, including the necessary legal and regulatory advice before, during and after the acquisition.

Disclaimer: This publication is provided by Armstrong Teasdale Limited for informational purposes only. The information contained in this publication should not be construed as legal advice. Any questions or further information regarding the matters discussed in this publication can be directed to Armstrong Teasdale’s U.K. Capital Markets team.

Contact Us
  • Worldwide
  • Boston, MA
  • Denver, CO
  • Dublin, Ireland
  • Edwardsville, IL
  • Jefferson City, MO
  • Kansas City, MO
  • Las Vegas, NV
  • London, England
  • Miami, FL
  • New York, NY
  • Philadelphia, PA
  • Princeton, NJ
  • Salt Lake City, UT
  • St. Louis, MO
  • Washington, D.C.
  • Wilmington, DE
Worldwide
abstract image of world map
Boston, MA
800 Boylston St.
30th Floor
Boston, MA 02199
Google Maps
Boston, Massachusetts
Denver, CO
4643 S. Ulster St.
Suite 800
Denver, CO 80237
Google Maps
Denver, Colorado
Dublin, Ireland
Fitzwilliam Hall, Fitzwilliam Place
Dublin 2, Ireland
Google Maps
Edwardsville, IL
115 N. Second St.
Edwardsville, IL 62025
Google Maps
Edwardsville, Illinois
Jefferson City, MO
101 E. High St.
First Floor
Jefferson City, MO 65101
Google Maps
Jefferson City, Missouri
Kansas City, MO
2345 Grand Blvd.
Suite 1500
Kansas City, MO 64108
Google Maps
Kansas City, Missouri
Las Vegas, NV
1980 Festival Plaza Drive, Suite 750
One Summerlin
Las Vegas, NV 89135
Google Maps
Las Vegas, Nevada
London, England
Royal College of Surgeons of England
38-43 Lincoln’s Inn Fields
London, WC2A 3PE
Google Maps
Miami, FL
355 Alhambra Circle
Suite 1250
Coral Gables, FL 33134
Google Maps
Photo of Miami, Florida
New York, NY
7 Times Square, 44th Floor
New York, NY 10036
Google Maps
New York City skyline
Philadelphia, PA
2005 Market Street
29th Floor, One Commerce Square
Philadelphia, PA 19103
Google Maps
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Princeton, NJ
100 Overlook Center
Second Floor
Princeton, NJ 08540
Google Maps
Princeton, New Jersey
Salt Lake City, UT
201 South Main Street
Suite 750
Salt Lake City, UT 84111
Google Maps
Salt Lake City, Utah
St. Louis, MO
7700 Forsyth Blvd.
Suite 1800
St. Louis, MO 63105
Google Maps
St. Louis, Missouri
Washington, D.C.
1050 Connecticut Avenue NW
Suite 500
Washington, DC 20036
Google Maps
Photo of Washington, D.C. with the Capitol in the foreground and Washington Monument in the background.
Wilmington, DE
1007 North Market Street
Wilmington, DE 19801
Google Maps
Wilmington, Delaware